Reviews Optical characterizationDisorderColloidal self assemblyChemical infiltrationPhysical infiltrationMaterialsNoninear optics


• JF Galisteo-López, M Ibisate, R Sapienza, L Froufe, A Blanco, C Lopez “Self-Assembled photonic structures” Adv. Mater. 23,30-69(2011).
• PD García, R Sapienza, C López “Photonic Glasses: a step beyond white paint” Adv. Mater. 22, 12–19 (2010) (Progress Report)
• C. López “Silicon Photonic Crystals” Optics and Photonics News 20 (1) 28-33 (2009) (Feature article)
• A. Blanco, C. López, A. García-Martín, G. Armelles, F.J. García Vidal “Nanofotónica: hacia el control sub-micrométrico de la luz” Revista Sistema madri+d, 34 (Monografía #15 pg. 27-35, Abril 2006)
• C. López “A little disorder is just right” Nature Physics, 4, 755 (2008).
• C. López “Three dimensional photonic bandgap materials: semiconductors for light” J. Opt. A: Pure Appl. Opt. 8 R1-R14 (2006).
• C. López, “Materials Aspects of Photonic Crystals” Adv. Mater. 15 (20) 1679 (2003).
• F. Meseguer, H. Míguez, A. Blanco, and C. López. “Photonic Band Gap Materials based on Opal like Structures”, in Recent Research Developments in Applied Physics, S.G. Pandalai (Ed.), vol. 2, 327-344.Transworld Research Network (1999).
• F. Meseguer, C. López, H. Míguez, J. Requena, J.S. Moya, “Ópalos y Cristales Fotónicos”, Investigación y Ciencia, 269, 50-56 (1999). (In Spanish)


Optical characterization (photonic bands etc.)

• JF Galisteo-Lopez, M Lopez-Garcia, A Blanco,C Lopez, “Studying light propagation in self-assembled hybrid photonic plasmonic crystals by Fourier microscopy” Langmuir, 24 9174-9179 (2012).
• M López-García, JF Galisteo-López, C López, A García-Martín “Light confinement by two-dimensional arrays of dielectric spheres”, Phys. Rev. B, 85, 235145 (2012)
• JF Galisteo-López, M López-García, C López, A García-Martín, “Intrinsic losses in self-assembled hybrid metallodielectric systems”, Appl. Phys. Lett. 99, 083302 (2011).
• A Reza, I Simkiene, R Vaisnoras, C López, D Golmayo, J Babonas, “Optical anisotropy of synthetic opals”, Photonics and Nanostructures – Fundamentals and Applications, 9, (1) 82-90 (2011)
• A García-Etxarri, R Gómez-Medina, LS Froufe-Pérez, C López, L Chantada, F Scheffold, J Aizpurua, M Nieto-Vesperinas and J J Sáenz, “Dipolar resonances of dielectric nanoparticles: Strong magnetic response of Silicon nanoparticles in the infrared” Opt. Express, 19 (6), 4815-4826 (2011)
• R. Sapienza, M. Leonetti, L. S. Froufe-Pérez, J. F. Galisteo-López, C. Conti, and C. López “Optical amplification enhancement in photonic crystals” Phys. Rev. A 83, 023801 (2011)
• M. López-García, J.F. Galisteo-López, Á. Blanco, C. López and A. García-Martín “High degree of optical tunability of self-assembled photonic-plasmonic crystals by filling fraction modification” Adv. Funct. Mater 20, 4338-4343 (2010)
• M. López-García, J.F. Galisteo-López, A. Blanco, J. Sánchez-Marcos, C.López and A. García-Martín “Enhancement and directionality of spontaneous emission in hybrid self-assembled photonic-plasmonic crystals”, Small, 6, 1757–1761 (2010)
• P.D. García, R. Sapienza, L.S. Froufe-Pérez, C. López, “Strong dispersive effects in the light-scattering mean free path in photonic gaps”; Phys. Rev. B 79, 241109 (R) (2009).
• J.F. Galisteo-López, M. Galli, A. Balestreri, M. Patrini, L.C. Andreani and C. López “Slow to superluminal light waves in thin 3D photonic crystals” Opt. Express 15 (23), 15342-15350 (2007)
• J. F. Galisteo-López, M. Galli, A. Balestreri, L. C. Andreani, C. López “Optical response of artificial opals oriented along the Γ-X direction”, Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 231112 (2007)
• X. Checoury, S. Enoch, C. López, A. Blanco, “Stacking patterns in self-assembly opal photonic crystals” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90,161131 (2007)
• J. F. Galisteo-López, M. Galli, M. Patrini, A. Balestreri, L. C. Andreani, C. López “Effective refractive index and group velocity determination of 3D photonic crystals by means of white light interferometry”, Phys. Rev. B 73, 125103 (2006)
• F. García-Santamaría, J.F. Galisteo, P.L. Braun, C. López, “Optical diffraction and high-energy features in three-dimensional photonic crystals” Phys. Rev. B 71 (19), 195112 (2005)
• J.F. Galisteo-López, F. García-Santamaría, D. Golmayo, B.H. Juárez, C. López, E. Palacios-Lidón, “Design of photonic bands for opal-based photonic crystals”, Photonics and Nanostructures Fundamentals and Applications, 2/2, 117-125, (2004).
• J.F. Galisteo-López, C. López “High-energy optical response of artificial opals” Phys. Rev. B 70, 035108 (2004).
• J.F. Galisteo-López, E. Palacios-Lidón, E. Castillo-Martínez, C. López “Optical study of the L gap in thickness and orientation controlled artificial opals”, Phys. Rev. B 68, 115109 (2003).
• J. F. Galisteo-López, F. López-Tejeira, S. Rubio, C. López, J. Sánchez-Dehesa “Experimental evidence of polarization dependence in the optical response of opal-based photonic crystals”, Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 4068 (2003).
• E. Palacios-Lidón, A. Blanco, M. Ibisate, F. Meseguer, C. López, J. Sánchez-Dehesa, “Optical study of the full photonic band gap in Silicon inverse opals”, Appl. Phys. Lett., 81, 4925-4927(2002).
• P. D. García, C. López, “Optical study of Γ-L high energy photonic pseudogaps in ZnO Inverted Opals” J. Appl. Phys. 99, 046103 (2006)



• Galisteo-López, J. F., Ibisate, M. & López, C. “FRET-Tuned Resonant Random Lasing”. J. Phys. Chem. C 118, 9665–9669 (2014).
• M Leonetti, C Conti, and C López, “Dynamics of phase-locking random lasers” Phys. Rev. A,88, 043834 (2013)
• PD García, C López, “From Bloch to random lasing in ZnO self-assembled nanostructures”, J. Mater. Chem. C 1, 7357-7362 (2013)
• M Leonetti, C Conti and C Lopez , “Nonlocality and collective emission in disordered lasing resonators” Light: Science & Applications, 2, e88 (2013)
• M Leonetti, C Conti and C Lopez, “Switching and amplification in disordered lasing resonators” Nature Comm. 4,1740 (2013).
• M Leonetti, C López, “Active subnanometer spectral control of a random laser” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102, 071105 (2013)
• M Leonetti, C López, “Random lasing in structures with multi-scale transport properties” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101, 251120 (2012)
• M Leonetti, C Conti and C
Lopez “Tunable
degree of localization in random lasers with controlled interaction”
Appl. Phys. Lett. 101, 0511104 (2012)
• V Canalejas-Tejero, M Ibisate, D Golmayo, A Blanco, C López,
“Qualitative and quantitative analysis of crystallographic defects present in 2D colloidal sphere arrays”
, Langmuir, 28, 161-167 (2012)
• M Leonetti, C Conti and C Lopez “Random laser tailored by directional stimulated emission”, Phys Rev. A 85, 043841 (2012).
• M Leonetti, C Conti, C Lopez, “The mode-locking transition of random lasers”; Nat. Phot. , 5, 615-617 (2011).
• M Leonetti, C López, “Probing light diffusion in thin systems” Opt. Lett. 36, Iss. 15, pp. 2824–2826 (2011)
• P.D. García, M. Ibisate, R. Sapienza, D. Wiersma, C. López, “Mie resonances to tailor random lasers” Phys. Rev. A, 80, 013833 (2009).
• P.D. Garcia, R. Sapienza, J. Bertolotti, M.D. Martin, A. Althube, A. Blanco, L. Vina, D.S. Wiersma, and C. Lopez, “Resonant light transport through Mie modes in photonic glasses”, Phys. Rev. A, 78, 023823 (2008).
• S. Gottardo, R. Sapienza, P.D. Garcia, A. Blanco, D. S. Wiersma, C. Lopez, “Resonance driven random lasing”, Nature Photonics, 2, 429 (2008) cover letter, highlights, and interview.
• R. Sapienza, P.D. García, J. Bertolotti, M.D. Martín, A. Blanco, L. Viña, C. López, D.S. Wiersma, “Observation of Resonant Behavior in the Energy Velocity of Diffused Light” Phys. Rev. Lett. 99, 233902 (2007)
• P. D. García, R. Sapienza, Á. Blanco and C. López, “Photonic glass: a novel random material for light” Adv. Mater. 19,2597-2602 (2007)
• E. Palacios, B.H. Juárez, E. Castillo, C. López, “Optical and Morphological Study of Disorder in Opals” J. Appl. Phys. 97, 063502 (2005)


 Colloidal self assembly

• A Blanco, F Gallego-Gomez, C López, “Nanoscale Morphology of Water in Silica Colloidal Crystals”, J. Phys. Chem. Lett. 4, 1136-1142 (2013).
• A Espinha, M Ibisate, JF Galisteo-Lopez, A Blanco, C Lopez, “One-step process composite colloidal monolayers and further processing aiming at porous membranes”, Langmuir, 28 13172-12180 (2012)
• S Achelle, Á Blanco, M López-García, R Sapienza, M Ibisate, C López, and J Rodríguez-López “New Poly(phenylene-vinylene)-Methyl Methacrylate-Based Photonic Crystals” J Polym. Sci. Part A: Polym. Chem. 48: 2659–2665 (2010)
• M. Ibisate, D. Golamayo, C. López, “Silicon direct opals” Adv. Mat. 21, 2899 (2009)
• J.F. Galisteo-López, F. García-Santamaría, D. Golmayo, B. H. Juárez, E. Palacios, C. López, “Self assembly approach to optical meta-materials” J. Opt. Pure and Appl. Opt. 7, S244-S254 (2005) Opt. 7, S244-S254 (2005)
• E. Palacios-Lidón, J.F. Galisteo-López, B.H. Juárez, C. López, “Engineered planar defects embedded in opals”, Adv. Mater. 16, 341, 345 (2004).
• R. Fenollosa, M. Ibisate, S. Rubio, C. López, F. Meseguer and J. Sánchez-Dehesa, “Photonic crystal microprisms obtained by carving artificial opals” J. Appl. Phys. 93, 671-674 (2002).
• F. García-Santamaría, H. T. Miyazaki, A. Urquía, M. Ibisate, M. Belmonte, N. Shinya, F. Meseguer, C. López, “Nanorobotic manipulation of microspheres for on-chip diamond architectures”, Adv. Mat. 14, 1144-1147 (2002).
• F. García-Santamaría, V. Salgueiriño-Maceira, C. López, and L.M. Liz-Marzán “Synthetic Opals Based on Silica-Coated Gold Nanoparticles”, Langmuir 18, 4519-4522 (2002).
• F. García-Santamaría, C. López, F. Meseguer, F. López-Tejeira and J. Sánchez-Dehesa, and H. T. Miyazaki, “Opal-like photonic crystal with diamond lattice”, Appl. Phys. Lett., 79, 2309-2311 (2001).
• M. Holgado, F. García-Santamaría, A. Blanco, M. Ibisate, A. Cintas, H. Míguez, C.J. Serna, C. Molpeceres, J. Requena, A. Mifsud, F. Meseguer and C. López, “Electrophoretic deposition to control artificial opal growth”, Langmuir 15, 4701 (1999). (abstract)
• R.C. Salvarezza, A.J. Arvia, C. López, J.M. Albella and L. Vázquez, “Study of the surface morphology evolution by scanning probe microscopy”, Proceedings of Scanning Microscopy Meeting, Chicago, May 12-15, (1997).
• H. Míguez, F. Meseguer, C. López, A. Blanco, J.S. Moya, J. Requena, A. Mifsud, V. Fornés, “Control of the photonic crystal properties of fcc packed submicron SiO2 spheres by sintering”, Adv. Mater. 10, 480-483 (1998).
• H. Míguez, F. Meseguer, C. López, A. Mifsud, J.S. Moya, L. Vázquez, “Evidence of FCC Crystallization of SiO2 Nanospheres”, Langmuir, 13, 6009-11 (1997) (abstract).
• H. Míguez, C. López, F. Meseguer, A. Blanco, L. Vázquez, R. Mayoral, M. Ocaña, V. Fornés, A. Mifsud, “Photonic crystal properties of packed submicrometric SiO2 spheres”, Appl. Phys. Lett., 71, 1148-1150 (1997).(abstract)
• C.López, H. Míguez, L. Vázquez, F. Meseguer, R. Mayoral & M. Ocaña, “Photonic Crystal Made by Close Packing SiO2 Submicron Spheres”,Superlatt. and Microstr. 22, 399-404, (1997). (abstract)
• R. Mayoral, J. Requena, C. López, S.J. Moya, H. Míguez, L. Vázquez, F. Meseguer, M. Holgado, A. Cintas, A. Blanco, “3D Long Range Ordering of Submicrometric SiO2 Sintered Superstructures”, Adv. Mater. 9, 257-260 (1997).
• R.C. Salvarezza, L. Vázquez, H. Míguez, R. Mayoral, C. López and F. Meseguer, “Edwards-Wilkinson Behaviour of Crystal Surfaces grown by sedimetation of SiO2 Nanospheres”, Phys. Rev. Lett. 77, 4572-4575 (1996).


Chemical Infiltration

• F Gallego-Gómez, A Blanco, C López, “Photoinduced Local Heating in Silica photonic crystals for fast and reversible switching”, Adv. Mater. 24, 6204-6209 (2012)
• JF Torrado, JB González-Díaz, G Armelles, A García-Martín, A Altube, M López-García, JF Galisteo-López, A Blanco, and C López “Tunable magneto-photonic response of Nickel Nanostructures” Appl. Phys. Lett, 99, 193109 (2011)
• O Pascu, JM Caicedo, M López-García, V Canalejas, A Blanco, C López, J Arbiol, J Fontcuberta, A Roig and G Herranz, “Ultrathin conformal coating for complex magneto-photonic structures”, Nanoscale, 3, 4811-4816 (2011)
• JM Caicedo, O Pascu, M López-García, V Canalejas, A Blanco, C Lopez, J Fontcuberta, A Roig, G Herranz, “Magneto-Photonic Response of Three-Dimensional Opals” ACS Nano, 5 (4) 2957-2963 (2011)
• M. Ibisate, D. Golmayo, C. López, “Vanadium dioxide thermochromic opals grown by Chemical Vapour Deposition” J. Opt. A: Pure Appl. Opt. 10 125202 (2008)
• A. Blanco, C. López , “Silicon onion-layer periodic threedimensional nanostructures”, highlight J. Mater. Chem, 16, 2969 – 2971 (2006)
• A. Blanco, C. López “Silicon onion-layer nanostructures arranged in three dimensions”, Adv. Mater. 18, 1593–1597 (2006)
• P. D. García, J. F. Galisteo-López, C. López, “Tuning and optical study of the Γ-X and Γ-L photonic pseudogaps in opals”, Appl. Phys. Lett. 87, 201109 (2005)
• B.H. Juárez, P.D. García, D. Golmayo, A. Blanco, C. López, “ZnO inverse opals by chemical vapour deposition” Adv. Mater. 17, 2765–2768 (2005)
• E. Palcios, H.M. Yates, M.E. Pemble, C. López, “Photonic band gap properties of GaP opals with a new topology” Appl. Phys. B. 81, 205-208 (2005)
• H.M. Yates, M.E. Pemble, E. Palacios-Lidón, F. García-Santamaría, I. Rodriguez, F. Meseguer and C. López, “Modification of the Natural Photonic Bandgap of Synthetic Opals via Infilling with Crystalline InP”, Adv. Func. Mater. 15, 411-417 (2005).
• B.H. Juárez, C. Alonso, C. López, “Formation of Zinc inverted opals on ITO and Silicon substrates by electrochemical deposition.” J. Phys. Chem. B 108,16708-16712 (2004).
• F. García-Santamaría, M. Ibisate, I. Rodríguez, F. Meseguer and C. López “Photonic Band Engineering in Opals by growth of Si/Ge multilayer shells”, Adv. Mater. 15, 788-792 (2003).
• B.H. Juárez, M. Ibisate, J.M. Palacios, C. López, “High Energy Photonic Band Gap in Sb2S3 Inverse Opals by Sulfidation Processing”, Adv. Mater. 15, 319-323 (2003). (abstract)
• B.H. Juárez, S. Rubio, J. Sánchez-Dehesa, C. López, “Antimony trisulfide inverted opals. Growth, characterization and photonic properties”, Adv. Mater. 14, 1486 (2002).(abstract)
• D. E. Whitehead, M.E. Pemble, H.M. Yates, A. Blanco, C. Lopez, H. Miguez, F. Meseguer, “Advances in the use of MOCVD methods for the production of novel photonic bandgap materials” J. Phys. IV 12, 63-66 (2002).
• F. Meseguer, A. Blanco, H. Míguez, F. García-Santamaría, M. Ibisate, and C. López “Synthesis of Inverse Opals” Colloids and Surfaces A, , 202, 281-290 (2002).
• H. Míguez, E. Chomski, F. García-Santamaría, M. Ibisate, S. John, C. López, F. Meseguer, J. P.Mondia, G. A. Ozin, O. Toader, and H. M. van Driel, “Photonic band gap engineering in germanium inverse opals by CVD” Adv. Mater. 13 1634-1637 (2001).
• H.M. Yates, M.E. Pemble, A. Blanco, H. Míguez, C. López, F. Meseguer “Growth of Tin Oxide in opals”, Chem. Vapour Deposition 6, 283 (2000).
• A. Blanco, H. Míguez, F. Meseguer, C. López, F. López-Tejeira, J. Sánchez-Dehesa, “Photonicband gap properties of a CdS-in-opal system”, Appl. Phys. Lett., 78, 3181-3 (2001).
• H. Míguez, F. Meseguer, C. López, F. López-Tejeira and J. Sánchez-Dehesa “Synthesis and photonic band gap characterization of polymer inverse opals” Adv. Mater. 13, 393-396 (2001).
• H.M. Yates, M.E. Pemble, A. Blanco, H. Míguez, C. López, F. Meseguer “Growth of Tin Oxide in opals”, Chem. Vapour Deposition 6, 283 (2000).
• R. Torrecillas, A. Blanco, M.E. Brito, C. López, H. Míguez, F. Meseguer, and S.J. Moya, “Microstructural study of CdS/Opal composites”, Acta Mat. 48, 4653-4657 (2000).
• M. Holgado, A. Cintas, M. Ibisate, C.J. Serna, C. López, F. Meseguer, “Three-Dimensional Arrays Formed by Monodisperse TiO2 Coated on SiO2, J. Colloid Interface Sci. 229, 6-11 (2000). Spheres”
• A. Blanco, E. Chomski, S. Grabtchak, M. Ibisate, S. John, S.W. Leonard, C. Lopez, F. Meseguer, H. Míguez, J.P. Mondia, G.A. Ozin, O. Toader and H.M. van Driel, “Large-scale synthesis of a silicon photonic crystal with a complete three-dimensional bandgap near 1.5 micrometres” Nature 405, 437-440 (2000).
• M. Alejandro-Rellano, T. Ung, A. Blanco, P. Mulvaney, L. Liz-Marzán, “Silica coated metals and semiconductors. Stabilization and nanostructuring” Pure and Applied Chemistry 72, 257-268 (2000)
• H. Míguez, F. Meseguer, C. López, M. Holgado, G. Andreasen, A. Mifsud, V. Fornés, “Germanium FCC Structure from a Colloidal Crystal Template”, Langmuir 16, 4405-4408 (2000).(abstract)
• H. Míguez, A. Blanco, C. López, F. Meseguer, H.M. Yates, M.E. Pemble, F. López-Tejeira, F.J: García-Vidal, and J. Sánhez-Dehesa, “Face centred cubic photonic bandgap materials based on opal-semiconductor composites” J. Lightwave Tech. 17 (11), 1975-1981 (1999).
• C. López, A. Blanco, H. Míguez, and F. Meseguer, “Photonic crystals for laser action” Optical Materials, 13, 187-192 (1999). (abstract)
• H. Míguez, A. Blanco, F. Meseguer, C. López, H.M. Yates, M.E. Pemble, V. Fornés and A. Mifsud, “Bragg diffraction from indium phosphide infilled fcc silica colloidal crystals” , Phys. Rev. B 59, 1563-1566 (1999).(abstract)
• H.M. Yates, M.E. Pemble, H. Míguez, A. Blanco, C. López, F. Meseguer, and L.Vázquez, “Atmospheric Pressure MOCVD growth of crystalline InP in opals”, J. Cryst. Growth. 193, 9-15 (1998).(abstract)
• A. Blanco, C. López, R. Mayoral, H. Míguez, F. Meseguer, A. Mifsud, & J. Herrero, “CdS Photoluminescence Inhibition by a Photonic Structure”,Appl. Phys. Lett., 73, 1781-1783 (1998).(abstract)


Physical infiltration

• F Gallego-Gomez, V Morales-Florez, A Blanco, N de la Rosa-Fox, C Lopez, “Water-dependent micromechanical and rheological properties of silica colloidal crystals studied by nanoindentation” Nano Letters, 12, 4920-4924 (2012)
• F Gallego-Gomez, A Blanco, C Lopez, “In-Situ Optical Study of Water Sorption in Silica Colloidal Crystals”, J. Phys. Chem. C 116, 18222-18229 (2012)
• F Gallego-Gomez, A Blanco, D Golmayo, C Lopez, “Three Regimes of Water Adsorption in Annealed Silica Opals and Optical Assessment” Langmuir 27, 13992 (2011)
• F Gallego-Gómez, Á. Blanco, V Canalejas-Tejero and C Lopez, “Water-Dependent Photonic Bandgap in Silica Artificial Opals” Small 7 (13), 18-38-1845 (2011)
• P. D. García, A. Blanco, A. Shavel, N. Gaponik, A. Eychmüller, B. Rodríguez, L. Liz, C. López, “Quantum dot thin layers templated on ZnO inverse opals” Adv. Mater. 18, 2768–2772 (2006)



• Espinha, A., Serrano, M. C., Blanco, Á. & López, C. Thermoresponsive Shape-Memory Photonic Nanostructures. Adv. Opt. Mater. 2, 516–521 (2014).
• M Ibisate, JF. Galisteo-López, V Esteso, C López , “FRET-mediated amplified spontaneous emission in DNA-CTMA complexes” Adv. Opt. Mater. 1, 651-656 (2013)
• M Leonetti, R Sapienza, M Ibisate, C Conti, and C López, “Optical gain in DNA-DCM for lasing in photonic materials”, Optics Letters, 34, 3764 (2009)
• F. Garcia-Santamaria, H. Miguez, M. Ibisate, F. Meseguer, C. Lopez, “Refractive Index Properties of Calcined Silica Spheres”, Langmuir 18 (5), 1942 -1944 (2002).


Nonlinear optics

• Mateos, L. et al. BaMgF 4 : An Ultra-Transparent Two-Dimensional Nonlinear Photonic Crystal with Strong χ (3) Response in the UV Spectral Region. Adv. Funct. Mater. 24, 1509–1518 (2014).
• L Mateos, P Molina, JF. Galisteo-López, C López, LE Bausá and MO Ramírez, “Broadly tunable triply concurrent nonlinear parametric interactions in SBN random quadratic media”, Appl. Phys. Lett. 103, 101101 (2013)
• L Mateos, P Molina, JF Galisteo, C López, LE Bausá and MO Ramírez, “Simultaneous generation of second to fifth harmonic conical beams in a two dimensional nonlinear photonic crystal”, Opt. Express 20, 29940-29948 (2012)



• PD Garcia, D Wiersma, C Lopez, “Photonic Glasses”, Optical Properties of Photonic Structures: Interplay of Order and Disorder, M Limonov, R de la Rue Eds. CRC Press, CRC Press, Boca Raton. FL, USA. ISBN 9781439871911
• JF Galisteo, C Lopez, “Optical properties Photonic Crytals”, in Optical Properties of Photonic Structures: Interplay of Order and Disorder, M Limonov, R de la Rue Eds. CRC Press, CRC Press, Boca Raton. FL, USA. ISBN 9781439871911
• Á. Blanco, C López , “Photonic Crystals: fundamental and applications”, Annual Rev. of Nano Research, vol 1 (2006)