New patent of the group

Method for nanostructured materials fabrication combining soft lithographic imprint, aluminum anodization and metal sputtering”

M. Vazquez, D. G. Trabada and D. Navas

EU Patent application PCT/EP2020/066600

The present invention relates to a method for nanostructured materials fabrication combining soft lithographic imprint, aluminum anodization and metal sputtering which permits the preparation of highly ordered nanoporous alumina templates with straight lines, square lattice ordering, and others.

The procedure is based on large-scale nanoimprint using patterned commercial disks as imprint media, followed by single anodization process and metal sputtering.

This technique constitutes a non-expensive method for mould production and pattern generation avoiding standard lithographical techniques useful in technologies such as for nano-photonic and magnonic devices.

This European Patent has been filed by CSIC in collaboration with Porto University

New paper of the group

Plasmonic coupling in closedpacked ordered gallium Nanoparticles”


S. Catalán-Gómez, C. Bran, M. Vázquez, L. Vázquez, J.L. Pau and A. Redondo-Cubero

Scientific Reports (2020) 10:4187  

DOI: 1

Plasmonic gallium (Ga) nanoparticles (NPs) are well known to exhibit good performance in applications as surface enhanced fluorescence and Raman spectroscopy or biosensing. However, to reach the optimal optical performance, the strength of the localized surface plasmon resonances (LSPRs) must be enhanced by suitable narrowing the NP size distribution among other factors. In a previous study we demonstrated the production of hexagonal ordered arrays of Ga NPs by using templates of aluminium (Al) shallow pit arrays, whose LSPRs were observed in the VIS region.

Now, by engineering the template dimensions that is by tuning Ga NPs size, we expand the LSPRs of the Ga NPs to cover a wider range of the electromagnetic spectrum from the UV to the IR regions.  The factors that cause the optical performance improvement are studied with the universal plasmon ruler equation, supported with discrete dipole approximation simulations. The results allow us to conclude that the plasmonic coupling between NPs originated in the ordered systems is the main cause for the optimized optical response.

This work, performed in collaboration with the Department of Applied Physics from the Autonomous University of Madrid, has been supported by the Spanish Ministry of Economy, Industry and Competitiveness (MINECO) under project MAT2016-76824-C3-1-R and by the Regional Government of Madrid under project S2018/NMT-4321 NANOMAGCOST-CM. 

New paper of the group

“Electric current and field control of vortex structures in cylindrical magnetic nanowires”

Jose A. Fernandez-Roldan, Rafael P. del Real, Cristina Bran, Manuel Vazquez and Oksana Chubykalo-Fesenko
Phys. Rev. B 102, 024421

Magnetization dynamics in a cylindrical Permalloy nanowire under simultaneously applied electric current and field is investigated by means of micromagnetic simulations. The reversal process starts with the creation of open vortex structures with different rotation senses at the nanowire ends. Our results conclude that the current alone enlarges or reduces the size of these vortex structures according to the rotational sense of the associated Oersted field. Large current intensity creates a vortex structure which covers the whole nanowire surface. At the same time the magnetization in the nanowire core remains the same, i.e., no complete magnetization reversal is possible in the absence of external field. The simultaneous action of the current and field allows for the complete control of the vortex structures in terms of setting the polarity and vorticity. The state diagram for the minimum field and current required for the vorticity and axial magnetization switching is presented. This control is essential for future information technologies based on three-dimensional vertical structures, and the presented state diagram will become very useful for future experiments on current-induced domain wall dynamics in cylindrical magnetic nanowires.

This work has been supported by the Spanish Ministry of Economy, Industry and Competitiveness (MINECO) under project MAT2016-76824-C3-1-R and by the Regional Government of Madrid under project S2018/NMT-4321 NANOMAGCOST-CM. 

New Review Article

“Cylindrical micro and nanowires: Fabrication, properties and applications”

J. Alam, C. Bran, H. Chiriac, N. Lupu, T.A. Óvári, L.V. Panina, V. Rodionova, R. Varga, M. Vazquez, A. Zhukov

Journal of Magnetism and Magnetic Materials 513 (2020) 167074


In this Review article, the state of the art in cylindrical nano and micro wires is updated with particular emphasis on the current research trends. The key properties for prospective applications are analyzed including magnetic anisotropy and micromagnetic structure, spin-caloritronics, domain wall dynamics and its control by transverse magnetic field and induced anisotropy, high frequency impedance and magnetic control of the electric polarizability, shape-memory and magnetocaloric effects in Heusler alloys wires.

Cylindrical nanowires present specific magnetic domain configurations as complex vortex and transverse domains while the magnetization reversal typically involves propagation of Bloch-point domain walls. Such magnetic behavior offers new perspectives for applications in advanced technologies including spintronics, logic devices and novel magnetic recording media, functionalization and bioengineering and sensor devices.

Rapidly solidified glass-coated amorphous nanowires and submicron wires constitute a novel class of ultrathin soft magnetic materials attractive for micro and nano sensors. Amorphous and nanocrystalline microwires present quite peculiar magnetic properties, like spontaneous magnetic bistability and magnetoimpedance effect. They are also suitably employed as selective microwave or as Heusler alloys materials.

This work includes some of more relevant work presented in the 8th International Workshop on Magnetic Wires (IWMW 2019) hold in Kaliningrad, August 2019. It contains the contributions from other institutions as National University of Science and Technology, Moscow, Russia; National Institute of Research and Development for Technical Physics, Iasi, Romania; Immanuel Kant Baltic Federal University, Kaliningrad, Russia and Dpto. Física de Materiales, University of the Basque Country, San Sebastian, Spain. The work has been partly supported by the Spanish Ministry of Economy, Industry and Competitiveness (MINECO) under project MAT2016-76824-C3-1-R and by the Regional Government of Madrid under project S2018/NMT-4321 NANOMAGCOST-CM.

New paper of the group

«Unveiling the origin of multi-domain structures in compositionally modulated cylindrical magnetic nanowires»

C. Bran, J.A. Fernandez-Roldan, R.P. Del Real, A. Asenjo, Y-S Chen, J. Zhang, X. Zhang, A. Fraile Rodríguez, M. Foerster, L. Aballe, O. Chubykalo-Fesenko and M. Vazquez

ACS Nano 2020, 14 (10), 12819–12827

The paper reports on controlling the occurrence of different states in multisegmented CoNi/Ni nanowires, with tailored alternating magnetic anisotropy, by using the effect of confinement and interaction between segments. The magnetic configurations i.e.  longitudinal, vortices or periodic transversal domains, are imaged by XMCD-PEEM and understood by modelling which reveal the relevance of different factors which should be taken into account to promote the occurrence of magneto-chiral effects controlling different structures.


COVID-19 has not stopped the activity of the group. Those are the papers published during 2020:

Quitério, P., Apolinário, A., Navas, D., Magalhães, S., Alves, E., Mendes, A., Sousa, C.T., Araújo, J.P.

Photoelectrochemical Water Splitting: Thermal Annealing Challenges on Hematite Nanowires

(2020) Journal of Physical Chemistry C, 124 (24), pp. 12897-12911.

DOI: 10.1021/acs.jpcc.0c012


Peixoto, L., Magalhães, R., Navas, D., Moraes, S., Redondo, C., Morales, R., Araújo, J.P., Sousa, C.T.

Magnetic nanostructures for emerging biomedical applications

(2020) Applied Physics Reviews, 7 (1), art. no. 011310, .

DOI: 10.1063/1.5121702


Verba, R.V., Navas, D., Bunyaev, S.A., Hierro-Rodriguez, A., Guslienko, K.Y., Ivanov, B.A., Kakazei, G.N.

Helicity of magnetic vortices and skyrmions in soft ferromagnetic nanodots and films biased by stray radial fields

(2020) Physical Review B, 101 (6), art. no. 064429, .

DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevB.101.064429


Otxoa, R.M., Atxitia, U., Roy, P.E., Chubykalo-Fesenko, O.

Giant localised spin-Peltier effect due to ultrafast domain wall motion in antiferromagnetic metals

(2020) Communications Physics, 3 (1), art. no. 31, .

DOI: 10.1038/s42005-020-0296-4


Catalán-Gómez, S., Bran, C., Vázquez, M., Vázquez, L., Pau, J.L., Redondo-Cubero, A.

Plasmonic coupling in closed-packed ordered gallium nanoparticles

(2020) Scientific Reports, 10 (1), art. no. 4187, .

DOI: 10.1038/s41598-020-61090-3


Vedmedenko, E.Y., Kawakami, R.K., Sheka, D.D., Gambardella, P., Kirilyuk, A., Hirohata, A., Binek, C., Chubykalo-Fesenko, O., Sanvito, S., Kirby, B.J., Grollier, J., Everschor-Sitte, K., Kampfrath, T., You, C.-Y., Berger, A.

The 2020 magnetism roadmap

(2020) Journal of Physics D: Applied Physics, 53 (45), art. no. 453001, .

DOI: 10.1088/1361-6463/ab9d98


Meneses, F., Bran, C., Vázquez, M., Bercoff, P.G.

Enhanced in-plane magnetic anisotropy in thermally treated arrays of Co-Pt nanowires

(2020) Materials Science and Engineering B: Solid-State Materials for Advanced Technology, 261, art. no. 114669, .

DOI: 10.1016/j.mseb.2020.114669


Alam, J., Bran, C., Chiriac, H., Lupu, N., Óvári, T.A., Panina, L.V., Rodionova, V., Varga, R., Vazquez, M., Zhukov, A.

Cylindrical micro and nanowires: Fabrication, properties and applications

(2020) Journal of Magnetism and Magnetic Materials, 513, art. no. 167074, .

DOI: 10.1016/j.jmmm.2020.167074


Algueró, M., Pérez-Cerdán, M., del Real, R.P., Ricote, J., Castro, A.

Novel Aurivillius Bi4Ti3−2xNbxFexO12phases with increasing magnetic-cation fraction until percolation: a novel approach for room temperature multiferroism

(2020) Journal of Materials Chemistry C, 8 (36), pp. 12457-12469.

DOI: 10.1039/d0tc03210g


Berganza, E., Jaafar, M., Fernandez-Roldan, J.A., Goiriena-Goikoetxea, M., Pablo-Navarro, J., García-Arribas, A., Guslienko, K., Magén, C., De Teresa, J.M., Chubykalo-Fesenko, O., Asenjo, A.

Half-hedgehog spin textures in sub-100 nm soft magnetic nanodots

(2020) Nanoscale, 12 (36), pp. 18646-18653.

DOI: 10.1039/d0nr02173c


Dieny, B., Prejbeanu, I.L., Garello, K., Gambardella, P., Freitas, P., Lehndorff, R., Raberg, W., Ebels, U., Demokritov, S.O., Akerman, J., Deac, A., Pirro, P., Adelmann, C., Anane, A., Chumak, A.V., Hirohata, A., Mangin, S., Valenzuela, S.O., Onbaşlı, M.C., d’Aquino, M., Prenat, G., Finocchio, G., Lopez-Diaz, L., Chantrell, R., Chubykalo-Fesenko, O., Bortolotti, P.

Opportunities and challenges for spintronics in the microelectronics industry

(2020) Nature Electronics, 3 (8), pp. 446-459.

DOI: 10.1038/s41928-020-0461-5


Fernandez-Roldan, J.A., Del Real, R.P., Bran, C., Vazquez, M., Chubykalo-Fesenko, O.

Electric current and field control of vortex structures in cylindrical magnetic nanowires

(2020) Physical Review B, 102 (2), art. no. 024421, .

DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevB.102.024421


Pulzara-Mora, C., Pulzara-Mora, A., Forero-Pico, A., Ayerbe-Samaca, M., Marqués-Marchán, J., Asenjo, A., Nemes, N.M., Arenas, D., Sáez Puche, R.

Structural, morphological and magnetic properties of GaSbMn/Si(111) thin films prepared by radio frequency magnetron sputtering

(2020) Thin Solid Films, 705, art. no. 137971, .

DOI: 10.1016/j.tsf.2020.137971


Olleros-Rodríguez, P., Guerrero, R., Camarero, J., Camarero, J., Chubykalo-Fesenko, O., Perna, P.

Intrinsic Mixed Bloch-Néel Character and Chirality of Skyrmions in Asymmetric Epitaxial Trilayers

(2020) ACS Applied Materials and Interfaces, 12 (22), pp. 25419-25427.

DOI: 10.1021/acsami.0c04661


Simeonidis, K., Martinez-Boubeta, C., Serantes, D., Ruta, S., Chubykalo-Fesenko, O., Chantrell, R., Oró-Solé, J., Balcells, L., Kamzin, A.S., Nazipov, R.A., Makridis, A., Angelakeris, M.

Controlling Magnetization Reversal and Hyperthermia Efficiency in Core-Shell Iron-Iron Oxide Magnetic Nanoparticles by Tuning the Interphase Coupling

(2020) ACS Applied Nano Materials, 3 (5), pp. 4465-4476.

DOI: 10.1021/acsanm.0c00568


Jaafar, M., Pablo-Navarro, J., Berganza, E., Ares, P., Magén, C., Masseboeuf, A., Gatel, C., Snoeck, E., Gómez-Herrero, J., de Teresa, J.M., Asenjo, A.

Customized MFM probes based on magnetic nanorods

(2020) Nanoscale, 12 (18), pp. 10090-10097.

DOI: 10.1039/d0nr00322k


Cacilhas, R., De Araujo, C.I.L., Carvalho-Santos, V.L., Moreno, R., Chubykalo-Fesenko, O., Altbir, D.

Controlling domain wall oscillations in bent cylindrical magnetic wires

(2020) Physical Review B, 101 (18), art. no. 184418, .

DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevB.101.184418


Shcherbinin, S.V., Perez, R., Vazquez, M., Kurlyandskaya, G.V.

Ferromagnetic Resonance in Electroplated CuBe/FeCoNi and Amorphous CoFeSiB Wires

(2020) IEEE Transactions on Magnetics, 56 (4), art. no. 8999601, .

DOI: 10.1109/TMAG.2020.2974141


Calle, E., Vázquez, M., P. del Real, R.

Time-resolved motion of a single domain wall controlled by a local tunable barrier

(2020) Journal of Magnetism and Magnetic Materials, 498, art. no. 166093, .

DOI: 10.1016/j.jmmm.2019.166093


Kaidatzis, A., del Real, R.P., Alvaro, R., Niarchos, D., Vázquez, M., García-Martín, J.M.

Nanopatterned hard/soft bilayer magnetic antidot arrays with long-range periodicity

(2020) Journal of Magnetism and Magnetic Materials, 498, art. no. 166142, .

DOI: 10.1016/j.jmmm.2019.166142


Butta, M., Vazquez, M., Perez Del Real, R., Calle, E.

Dependence of the noise of an orthogonal fluxgate on the composition of its amorphous wire-core

(2020) AIP Advances, 10 (2), art. no. 025114, .

DOI: 10.1063/1.5130393


Bollero, A., Neu, V., Baltz, V., Serantes, D., Cuñado, J.L.F., Pedrosa, J., Palmero, E.M., Seifert, M., Dieny, B., Del Real, R.P., Vázquez, M., Chubykalo-Fesenko, O., Camarero, J.

An extraordinary chiral exchange-bias phenomenon: Engineering the sign of the bias field in orthogonal bilayers by a magnetically switchable response mechanism

(2020) Nanoscale, 12 (2), pp. 1155-1163.

DOI: 10.1039/c9nr08852k

New paper of the group

Extraordinary Chiral Exchange-Bias Phenomenon: Engineering the Sign of the Bias Field in Orthogonal Bilayers by a Magnetically Switchable Response Mechanism

Alberto Bollero, Volker Neu, Vincent Baltz, David Serantes, José Luis F. Cuñado, Javier Pedrosa, Ester M. Palmero, Marietta Seifert, Bernard Dieny, Rafael P. del Real, Manuel Vázquez, Oksana Chubykalo-Fesenko and Julio Camarero

Nanoscale, 2020

DOI: 10.1039/C9NR08852K

Isothermal tuning of magnitude and sign of the bias field has been achieved by exploiting a new phenomenon in a system consisting of two orthogonally coupled films: SmCo5 (out-of-plane anisotropy)-CoFeB (in-plane anisotropy). This has been managed by using the large dipolar magnetic field of the SmCo5 layer resulting in pinning one branch of the loop (either ascending or descending branch) at a fixed field value while the second one is modulated along the field axis by varying the orientation of an applied magnetic field. This enables the control of the sign of the bias field in a novel manner. Moreover, modulation of the bias field strength is possible by varying the thickness of a spacer between the SmCo5 and CoFeB layers. This study shows that the observed phenomena find their origin in the competition of artificially induced anisotropies on both layers, resulting in a reversible chiral bias effect that allows selecting the initial sign of the bias field by switching (upwards/downwards) the magnetization in the SmCo5 film.


The figure shows the in-plane hysteresis loops measured by MOKE with magnetic field applied at different in-plane angles for: (a) and (b) SmCo5(30nm)/spacer(4.3nm)/CoFeB(3nm); and (c) and (d) SmCo5(30nm)/spacer(12.8nm)/CoFeB(3nm). aH = 0° corresponds to applied magnetic field parallel to the easy axis direction of the Si/SiO2/CoFeB reference sample. Arrows are visual guides to show the continuous increase in coercivity when varying the field while keeping pinned one of the loop branches.


This work, in collaboration with IMDEA Nanoscience, Madrid; IFW Dresden; SPINTEC, Univ. Grenoble Alpes/CNRS/CEA and the Univ. Autónoma de Madrid, has been supported partly by the Spanish Ministry of Economy, Industry and Competitiveness (MINECO) under project MAT2016-76824-C3-1-R and by the Regional Government of Madrid under project S2018/NMT-4321 NANOMAGCOST-CM. 


New paper of the group

«Exotic Transverse-Vortex Magnetic Configurations in CoNi Nanowires»

Ingrid Marie Andersen, Luis Alfredo Rodríguez, Cristina Bran, Cécile Marcelot, Sébastien Joulie, Teresa Hungria, Manuel Vázquez, Christophe Gatel and Etienne Snoeck

ACS Nano, December 11, 2019



The magnetic configurations of cylindrical Co-rich CoNi nanowires have been quantitatively analyzed at the nanoscale by electron holography and correlated to local structural and chemical properties. The nanowires display grains of both face-centered cubic (fcc) and hexagonal close-packed (hcp) crystal structures, with grain boundaries parallel to the nanowire axis direction. Electron holography evidences the existence of a complex exotic magnetic configuration characterized by two distinctly different types of magnetic configurations within a single nanowire: an array of periodical vortices separating small transverse domains in hcp rich regions with perpendicular easy axis orientation, and a mostly axial configuration parallel to the nanowire axis in regions with fcc grains. These vastly different domains are found to be caused by local variations in the chemical composition modifying the crystalline orientation and/or structure, which give rise to change in magnetic anisotropies. Micromagnetic simulations, including the structural properties that have been experimentally determined, allows for a deeper understanding of the complex magnetic states observed by electron holography.

This work derives from the current collaboration between our GNMP group and CEMES – CNRS, Toulouse, France. It has been partly supported by the Spanish Ministry of Economy, Industry and Competitiveness (MINECO) under project MAT2016-76824-C3-1-R and by the Regional Government of Madrid under project S2018/NMT-4321 NANOMAGCOST-CM

New book


«Magnetic Nano- and Microwires: Design, Synthesis, Properties and Applications»

2nd Edition, edited by Manuel Vázquez

ISBN: 9780081028322 (Woodhead Publishing, Elsevier) (2020), pp. 962

A Volume in the Woodhead Publishing Series in Electronic and Optical Materials. The most comprehensive reference available on magnetic nanowires and microwires.

Flyer of the Book


  • Details the multiple key techniques for the growth, processing and characterization of nanowires and microwires
  • Discusses magnetism and transport in nanowires, skyrmions and domain walls in nano and microwires and the latest innovations in magnetic imaging
  • Reviews the principles and difficulties involved in applying magnetic nano- and microwires to a wide range of technologies, including biomedical and sensing applications


Magnetic Nano-and Microwires: Design, Synthesis, Properties and Applications, Second Edition, reviews the growth and processing of nanowires and nanowire heterostructures using such methods as electrodeposition and sol-gel, focused-electron/ion-beam-induced deposition, epitaxial growth by chemical vapor transport, and ultrafast solidification. Other sections cover engineering nanoporous anodic alumina, discuss magnetic and transport properties, domains, domain walls in nano-and microwires, and provide updates on skyrmions, domain walls, magnetism and transport, and the latest techniques to characterize and analyze these effects.

Final sections cover applications, both current and emerging, and new chapters on memory, sensor, thermoelectric and nanorobotics applications. This book will be an ideal resource for academics and industry professionals working in the disciplines of materials science, physics, chemistry, electrical and electronic engineering and nanoscience.